Bolivia’s Magic Word & other linguistic oddities

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In Bolivia, when you are at a market – buying produce for example – there’s a magic word you must use. After asking the price of all your goods, and paying the nice lady (or man), simply ask, “con yapa?” The shopkeeper will usually nod, look around for something smallish, and hand you two small plums or some hot peppers for free! When we first used it, it definitely felt magical; we had somehow trapped this lady and she had to give us something extra! Like a monster that will only let travelers pass when the correct phrase is uttered… I mean, sort of like that.

We originally thought that yapa must be some indigenous language word that has filtered into modern Bolivian society, but not so! Similar to the idea behind BOGO (buy one get one), yapa is short for lleva 3, paga 2 (take 3, pay for 2). I don’t know if I’m disappointed that it’s origins aren’t so old or not, but I love it nonetheless. The term con yapa comes from the Quechua word yapay which means “to increase” or “to add.” It’s lovely to learn that something so quirky like this has been maintained through modern times. I’ve even learned that there is a version of this known as lagniappe which is used in New Orleans, having arrived via Spanish creoles.

Our recent foray into the heart of camba country (the Bolivian Orient) led to the discovery of many great modismos, or slang words, typical of that region. First, a quick lesson: Spanish speakers love to use diminutives, applying an -ito suffix to make the word smaller. No joke, we once heard a vendor on a bus say something like, “un agüita, bien heladito, para una monedita, señor amiguito” or roughly “a small water, very cold (but somehow small), for a small coin, Mr. Little Friend.” It doesn’t really make any sense, but it’s a way to diminish your request to something less serious.

In Santa Cruz they use the suffix -ingo instead. This adds a sort of flair to their Spanish. Combine this with not pronouncing the “s” at the ends of words, and dropping the second “d” when they end in “dado” and you’ve got a recipe for confusion. So, the next time you’re in the Bolivian Orient, and someone asks you how you’re feeling, answer them with this little number, “Pue, me siento chalingo! Y vos? Sentís bien pelao?”* Oh yeah, they use the Vos form instead of Tú, just like those crazy gauchos down south.

*chalingo is slang for really clean, like a windshield of a car; pelado literally means bare, but is used to call a person who doesn’t have facial hair, or could be going bald.

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